Sunday, May 24, 2020

Whole Food Nadler-Tushmand CA Mod4 - 1772 Words

The inputs and outputs within an organization are extremely important when determining if their strategic goals and desired outcomes are being or will be achieved. This paper will continue to examine Whole Foods through the Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model; zeroing in on performance as it relates to organization goals and outcomes based on the congruency of it outputs across the models three levels. Whole Foods continues with the Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model this time examining organizational outputs. In addition, the following will discuss the way in which the company identifies its groups, individual functions, and the interactions among different organizational outputs. Organizational Level ~ Outputs Outputs vary by company†¦show more content†¦As mentioned earlier, financial managers within the organization such as accountants or stakeholders could be categorized into a separate group. Whole Foods has in the past analyzed its outputs from this group to determine its overall financial success and sustainability of company. In 2008, Whole Foods executed the conservative growth and business strategy financial changes and to determine success of these inputs, the financial outputs were analyzed. According to financial output, by lowering sales volumes in-turn it delivered a 16% increase in adjusted EBITDA* on a 1% increase in sales. (Whole Foods) Financial outputs are possibly one of the most telling categories as to a company’s overall financial staying power. Key Individual Functions This organization consists of individuals and functions which are utilized in strategic decisions for strategic output. An example, the Whole Foods Company faces concerns in particular to their limited customer demographics; this is due to limited products and price outputs. In order for the organization to compensate for the use of high end suppliers, and their expensive infrastructure, the company must sell products at a higher cost than most of its competitors. This would suggest a weakness within the Whole Foods organizations as it only targets consumers who are willing to pay higher than average prices for groceries. The cost of

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Database Processing Ch 1 and Part of Ch 2 - 1432 Words

Chapter 1 – Review Questions 1.1 What is the purpose of a database? - The purpose of a database is to help people keep track of things. 1.2 What is the most commonly used type of database? - The relational database is the most commonly used type of database. 1.7 Define the terms data and information. Explain how the two terms differ. - Data are facts and figures. Information is defined as knowledge derived from data, or as data presented in a meaningful context. Data is simply recorded in the database, but the data must be manipulated in some way to produce information. 1.12 What is the purpose of the largest databases used by e-commerce companies such as - The largest databases used by e-commerce companies†¦show more content†¦- Structured Query Language (SQL) is an internationally recognized standard language used and understood by all commercial database management systems. 1.19 What does DBMS stand for? - DBMS stands for database management system. 1.20 What is the function of the DBMS? - A DBMS creates, processes and administers databases under the control of the DBMS. 1.21 Name three vendors of DBMS products. - Three vendors of DBMS products are Microsoft (Microsoft Access and SQL Server), Oracle Corporation (Oracle Database and MySQL), and IBM (DB2). 1.22 Define the term database. - A database is a self-describing collection of integrated tables, which means that the tables store both data and the relationships between the data. 1.23 Why is a database considered to be self-describing? - A database is considered to be self-describing because it contains a description of itself – such as what tables are in the database, which columns are in each table and what kind of data is stored in each column. 1.24 What is metadata? How does this term pertain to a database? - Metadata is data about data. Metadata in databases allow them to be self-describing. 1.25 What advantage is there in storing metadata in tables? - The advantage of storing metadata in tables is that we can query the metadata to determine the structure of the database – for example, what tables, columns, indexes and data types exist in the database. 1.26 List the components of aShow MoreRelatedToothpaste Marketing Research Proposal1031 Words   |  5 Pagesfor such toothpaste products 1. To research if the brand toothpastes on the market can meet consumer expectation and demand. 2.  Ã‚  To find out which function of toothpaste is the first choice when the consumer decided to purchase. 3. To analysis the strategies and the segmentation of different toothpaste brands, awareness the target consumer and to build their positioning. Methodology: 1. Exploratory Research It is necessitated which is conductedRead MoreEssay about It210 Syllabus2323 Words   |  10 PagesCourse Design Guide IT/210 Version 5 1 Syllabus College of Information Systems Technology IT/210 Version 5 Fundamentals of Programming With Algorithms and Logic Copyright  © 2011, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Course Description This course provides students with a basic understanding of programming practices. Concepts covered include flowcharting, pseudocode methodologies, and an understanding of programming practices. Students will learn how theseRead MoreAccounting Information System Chapter 1137115 Words   |  549 PagesCHAPTER 1 ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1.1 The value of information is the difference between the benefits realized from using that information and the costs of producing it. Would you, or any organization, ever produce information if its expected costs exceeded its benefits? If so, provide some examples. If not, why not? Most organizations produce information only if its value exceeds its cost. However, there are two situationsRead MoreA Note On Detection Algorithm1411 Words   |  6 Pagescopy on the web. Therefore a need arises to update the database of web pages. Once a decision has been taken to update the pages, it should be ensured that minimal resources are used in the process. Updating only those elements of the database, which have actually undergone a change, can do this. Importance of web pages to be downloaded has been discussed in the above section. It also checks whether the page is already there in the database or not and lowers its priority value if it is referred ratherRead MoreSpace Age Furniture Company2426 Words   |  10 Pagessub-assemblies. In addition, there will be an analysis on the trade-offs between the overtime and inventory costs. A calculation will be made on the new MRP that will improve the base MRP. This paper will also compare and contrast the types of production processing to include the job shop, batch, repetitive, or continuous, and determine which the p rimary mode of operation should be and exactly why. A detailed description on how management can keep track of the job status and location during production willRead MorePsychology Approach5669 Words   |  23 PagesModule Study Guide Research Methods in Psychology 2 Deadlines: 1st Report Week 6, Thurs 6th March 12noon 2nd Report Week 10, Thurs 17th April 12noon Lectures: Fridays 1pm-2pm TC102 Workshops: Mondays in Paragon NB – check for changes to this in weeks 10, 11 and 13 due to the Bank Holidays. School of Psychology, Social Work and Human Sciences School of Psychology, Social Work and Human Sciences Research Methods in Psychology 2 Module Study Guide |Module Code Read MoreConvolutional Networks1451 Words   |  6 PagesConvolutional neural networks (CNN) are a recent method used in image segmentation. CNNs are semantic processes that determine the meanings of images by viewing their wholes and their parts. For example, during the training phase, a CNN might be given several images of cars, but it might also be given images of tires and headlights. One method for implementing CNNs is pooling. Figure 3 in an article by Long, Shelhamer and Darrel (2014), illustrates images being gradually divided into larger blocksRead MoreEnergy Aware Fault Of Wireless Sensor Networks3453 Words   |  14 Pageslimitless future potentials for any type of ambience surveillance, hence fault tolerance in WSNs which are easily prone to failure, is crucial. WSN’s comprised of tiny sensor devices (sensor nodes) and the wireless network itself. A node consists of parts like radio transceiver, microcontroller, an electronic circuit for sensor interfacing, battery/ power source. The peripheral environment in which the sensor is being used makes the sensor devices susceptible to failure. The results of the sensors areRead MoreA Review : Wireless Body Area Network Performance Dependency1748 Words   |  7 Pages(BSN).WBAN is a wireless network which is used in wearable computing devices[1]. It can be either embedded inside the body or can be surface mounted on fixed position wearable technology. One can carry theses such devices along with them like in bags, in pockets, By hand etc. A network consists of several miniaturized Body -Sensor Units together with a single Body Central Unit because of the trend in miniaturization of devices.[2] The Smart devices like pad or tabs which are larger in size still playsRead MoreBenefits Of Living And Commuting Between Brussels And Paris1850 Words   |  8 PagesBrussels and Paris is that you are a stone s throw (well, in close proximity) to all of the major, funky technol ogy events such as IBM Research/Analytics (Paris FR and Zurich CH), IBM Cyber Security (Ghent BE), Cannes Lions (Cannes FR), and the Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) Artificial Intelligence events (Zurich CH). This past week I was able to enjoy a few days at the International Conference on Machine Learning in Lille, France. It is the premier annual Machine Learning (ML) event supported

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

William Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice Essay

William Shakespeare s comedy The Merchant of Venice uses contrasting religions to draw out major themes through the ethnic divides that are exemplified. The play expresses the extreme cultural divide between the Jews and Christians through a legal contract between two men. The rivalry between the two men, Shylock and Antonio is clear from the beginning of the play and only intensifies as it continues on. Modern day readers most likely take away a slightly different message from the play than what was originally intended. However, his intended message is also further strengthened with the post World War II influences on the reader s thinking. Shakespeare’s play uses these ethnic rivalries to express thematic elements such as sacrifice and loss which are further impactful with the post holocaust lens that twentieth century readers use. Shakespeare begins by creating a very stereotypical, for the time, Jewish character. Shylock is a money lender, who, in the stereotypical Christian eye is seen as greedy for his policy of charging interest. He is criticized numerous times for this act of charging interest, and yet he responds with a clear conscience when Antonio berates him for it, saying,â€Å"You call me a misbeliever, cutthroat dog, and spit upon my Jewish gaberdine, and all for use of that which is mine own† (1.3.108-110) In this scene, Shylock expresses the conflict between Christians and Jews on a very personal level. The belief that the charging of interest is out ofShow MoreRelatedWilliam Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice1320 Words   |  6 Pagesghetto, and were treated as inferior to the rest of the city. William Shakespeare’s play The Merchant of Venice exhibits the prejudicial attitudes of his era. Antonio, a Christian merchant, makes a deal with Shylock, a Jewish moneylender. Shylock us es it as an opportunity to exact revenge by demanding a pound of Antonio’s flesh if he does not meet his end of the bargain. By pitting the majority of his characters against Shylock, Shakespeare portrays Shylock in a way that discriminates against all JewsRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice2269 Words   |  10 PagesSamantha Hansen ENG 314 Brother Brugger 12.15.14 The Question of Shylock It is hard to read The Merchant of Venice without finding at least one character to sympathize with. The unforgettable villain Shylock as well as Portia, Shakespeare’s first and one of his most famous heroines are arguably some of this plays most beloved characters. But, is Shylock really the villain? Or is he a victim of circumstance? Shylock’s insistence for a pound of flesh has made him one of literatures most memorableRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice1970 Words   |  8 Pagesthe titles are reflective of the protagonists featured within. For example, the famous titles of Julius Caesar and Hamlet tell the tragedies of those respective characters. However, when it comes to William Shakespeare’s fourteenth play, The Merchant of Venice, it can be argued that Antonio, the merchant, is not who the play is about. In fact, there is not just one character, but instead multiple that fit the description of the protagonist. The main plot, or rather p lots, of the play revolve aroundRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice1315 Words   |  6 PagesIn The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare the play is based upon the hierarchy between Christian men and Jewish men. A character by the name of Bassanio borrows money from his friend Antonio, and Antonio borrows the money from Shylock to give to Bassanio. Eventually, Antonio cannot pay the money back because his ships have supposedly sunk. Therefore, he comes close to death because he signed a bond with Shylock stating that Shylock would get a pound of his flesh if the bond was not repaidRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice1532 Words   |  7 Pagesuseless dialogue can make readers skip over what seems like a false beginning to a good story. But think about this: what if those seemingly lengthy, extra, useless words were actually important? For example, the opening 115 lines of William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice are provide minimal support to the story at first glance. In these lines, Antonio and his friends are discussing the dynamics of happiness and sadness in order to find the root of Antonio’s sad mood. This portion of the play givesRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Merchant Of Venice988 Words   |  4 PagesAs I finished reading Merchant of Venice by Shakespeare, I realized that the struggle of the play gyrates around whether justice is truly served and is morality advocated or manipulated by those in authority. The struggle between the principles of justice have caused many readers to question the interaction between the definition of morality and justice. The bond that causes readers to take a closer look throughout the play originates from Shylock’s desire for vengeance and Antonio’s desireRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice1532 Words   |  7 Pagesfundamentalist Americans. The ills of money-lending from the Eastern perspective have been fodder for Western literature for centuries, replete with illustrations that mirror the differences and similarities in East-West cultural norms. In William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, money-lending has gone awry. In Act I, Scene iii, the Italian Antonio seeks to borrow 3,000 ducats from the Jewish Shylock, and Shylock intends to charge him interest, which is against Jewish economic-religious principles (BateRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice Essay1275 Words   |  6 PagesShakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice is so alike to our financially afflicted world. The rules of law and commerce are subject to deceptive manipulation, fear of the other overwhelms respect for a common humanity, duplicity is the norm, sexuality is a vehicle for ambition, and money drives and wraps almost every action. It is a classic tale that includes important details of the financial crisis in the Unit ed States during 2007-2009. Shakespeare’s Venice, like the New York of his time - and theRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice2059 Words   |  9 Pagesin The Merchant of Venice resembles a folktale known as â€Å"A Pound of Flesh† (325). Artese supports his supposition with background context and parallels between the two story lines. Literary versions of the pound of flesh story circulated during the sixteenth century and were collected since the nineteenth century because of the plot’s longevity and populairity Shakespeare would have been familiar with pound of flesh stories (326). Human commodification is a central issue in both The Merchant of VeniceRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s The Merchant Of Venice 1189 Words   |  5 PagesNikki Vietz Ms. Seibel Honors English 12 1 May 2015 Was Shakespeare Prejudice? The premise of William Shakespeare comedy, The Merchant of Venice, is the hostile relationship between Shylock, a Jewish moneylender, and Antonio, a Christian trader. The two gentlemen have a deep history of hatred due to personal injuries and Antonio’s refusal to collect interest on loans. This hatred comes to a climax when Antonio’s friend, Bassanio wishes to borrow three thousands ducats from Antonio so he can travel

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

A Comparison and Contrast of the Supernaturals Ac Essay Example For Students

A Comparison and Contrast of the Supernaturals Ac Essay tive Role in the Lives of MaryRowlandson and Benjamin FranklinA Comparison and Contrast of the Supernaturals Active Role in the Lives of MaryRowlandson and Benjamin FranklinThe literature written during this time period reflects the importantpart the supernatural (God) played during those changing times. The new worldwas struggling for a new identity. Were these individuals also defining therole of God to themselves?In the preceding discussion the lives of Mary Rowlandson and BenjaminFranklin will be discussed. Each wrote a narrative of their life experiences. There are marked contrasts and comparisons between these two individuals relatedto their perceptions of God. Religion was a vital part of life in colonial America. A shift fromtheism to deism was occurring. The Puritans of this time were fleeing the Churchof England. Their hope was to return to the more primitive ways, to reject thechurches hierarchy and ritual. Mary Rowlandson, a puritan in Lancaster, Massachusetts was captured byIndians, along with three of her children in the year 1676. In her narrativeshe relates the story of her survival in the wilderness for a period of threemonths. She is taken away from her home and husband, all was gone (except mylife); and I knew not but the next moment that might go too (127). Benjamin Franklins The Autobiography is an account of his life and beginswith his boyhood life in Boston. He later flees to Philadelphia to escape hisbrothers rule over him. He relates how he was dirty, fatigud, and Want ofRest (222). In these depictions we can see an analogy. These individuals are removedfrom their homes and families. Although Benjamin Franklins removal was of hisown free will. They each suffered as they no longer had the comforts of whichthey were accustomed. Rowlandsons faith was remarkable considering all that she endured. Through out the narrative she must rely on her faith in God. She incorporatesnumerous verses from the Bible to offer explanations for all that she hassuffered, Wait on the Lord: be of good courage, and he shall strengthen thineheart: wait, I say on the Lord (129). It is also noted that she was able to useher trade to survive, knitting a pair of white cotton stockings for mymistress(130). This is also a parallel to Franklin in that he also used histrade to survive. But one must ask what is motivating Rowlandson? Is she writingfor posterity or is she merely egocentric? Rowlandson has depicted herself asthe ultimate Puritan. Was the glory to God or to herself? She also relates herehow many Sabbaths I had lost and misspent (128). It is interesting to notethat toward the end of the narrative she begins to see that her fate is in Godshands, When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee(133). At theend she recounts her old ways, I have seen the extreme vanity of this world(134). Franklin, states, I had been religiously educated, Iseldom attended anyPublic Worship(226). Some of the dogma he described as unintelligible,others doubtful (225). He saw a need to center authority for our lives not inGod but in oneself. He also noted My conduct may be blameable, but I leave itwithout attempting farther to excuse it (227). Franklin is explaining hisbehavior but not making apologies. It is also noted that he reveals that he hadundertaken the bold and arduous Project of arriving at moral perfection (227). He had also written a Form of Prayer for my own private use (227). InFranklins Thirteen Names of Virtues, He lists the qualities he deemsDesirable (228). Originally there were only 12 but a Quaker friend kindlyinformd me that I was generally thought proud (233). The last virtue ishumility, and his statement imitate Jesus and Socrates, reflect deism(228). .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc , .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc .postImageUrl , .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc , .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc:hover , .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc:visited , .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc:active { border:0!important; } .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc:active , .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf6ddeefa7db1d5f3b4b9ef7541c327dc:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Diabetes EssayAlthough Franklin does state that he was not able to achieve this virtue, hereveals, I had a good deal with regard to the Appearance of it (233). Franklin also had a Memorandum Book, in which he kept track of his virtues. The book was lined in red ink and his faults were marked in black, which marksI could easily wipe out with a wet sponge(231). Could this possibly be ananalogy to God? Franklin is forming his own destiny in relation with his deistbeliefs. The ideas he projects are rectitude, justice and belief that happinessmay

Saturday, April 4, 2020

Underlying Issues Associated with Sleep Disorders and Stress

Introduction Refreshing sleep is critical for good health and well-being. Sleep presents the human body a period of time to restore energy, grow, repair cellular damage, detoxify vital organs, including allowing the brain a much needed opportunity to dream, generate neurotransmitters that are essential for stable mental health, and assimilate newly learned information (Vukovic, 2010).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Underlying Issues Associated with Sleep Disorders and Stress specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More More importantly, recent studies have identified a positive correlation between adequate sleep and enhanced capacity to cope with stress, while sleep deprivation have been positively associated with increased mood disturbances and impaired mental, emotional, and physical performance (Levy et al, 2006). The need to understand about normal sleep and sleep disorders, therefore, has never been so urgent. It is the purpose of this paper to argue and demonstrate evidence that sleep disorders have a negative impact on our ability to handle stress and whether caused by stress or simply adding to our stress, they have a profound impact on our work life and our home life. There exists compelling evidence to demonstrate that sleep research had been neglected for decades as this important facet of our own being was viewed to be of no germane consequence to the wellbeing of humans, and therefore was dropped back into a void (Sleep Mechanics, 2010). Yet, new studies underscore a huge transformation in the way psychologists, scientists, and sleep researchers have taken a keen interest on sleep and sleep disorders (Carey, 2007). Human beings sleep for one third of their life (Levy et al, 2006), and the devastating effects caused by sleep disorders are too painful to imagine, necessitating a keen interest on this broad topic. There has been a convergence of interest for many researchers on the topic of sleep disorder and stress. Indeed, among a multiplicity of factors affecting healthy sleep, a wealth of literature has reported the unfavorable influence of psychological stress and psychiatric disorders (Brand et al, 2010). Some researchers are of the opinion that sleep disorders occasions psychological stress, while others support a more liberal view that sleep disorders and stress are geometrically related and affect each other proportionately depending on the variables at play (Overeem Reading, 2010).Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The situation is further compounded by the fact that it is exceedingly difficult to define stress as it encompass all types of stimuli of varying intensities and duration , not mentioning the fact that divergent types of stressors brings with them diverse impacts on sleep (Eui-Joong Dimsdale, 2007). What is known at this stag e is that sleep disorder and stress are inexorably linked, and both are associated with undesirable outcomes. Normal Sleep and its Positive Effects For decades now, it has proven difficult for researchers to offer an objective and unified definition of what normal sleep entails (Lichstein et al, 2004). Sleep researchers, aware of the complexities involved in offering a holistic definition, have developed benchmarks that could be used to offer a justifiable description of normal sleep. In simple terms, however, normal sleep can be defined as â€Å"†¦normally distributed range of sleep† (Lichstein et al, 2004, p. 73). Normal sleep should be viewed and evaluated within the realms of both good and poor sleepers since it is not necessarily true that poor sleepers have a sleep disorder. Still, normal sleep can be defined as the lack of or absence of sleep disorder, known as a state of normality (Vukovic, 2010). NINDS (2010a)1 posits that â€Å"†¦for most adults, a normal night’s sleep lasts about 8 hours and is composed of four to six separate sleep cycles†¦A sleep cycle is defined by a segment of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep followed by a period of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep† (para. 4). It is imperative to note that sleep, which is defined as a natural sporadic state of rest, comes in phases and different individuals forms their own conceptions of what is enough sleep for them. However, the inability to accomplish the sleep cycle in a single night must never be viewed as a sleep disorder (Brand et al, 2010). The intrigues of definition notwithstanding, the positive effects of normal sleep have been confirmed and well-documented by researchers (Cai Richard, 2009). On the physical front, numerous studies have demonstrated that normal sleep is positively correlated to improved vigilance, alertness, improved reaction time, vibrant energy, improved accuracy, and decreased fatigue, among others (Overeem Reading, 2010). Bio logically, enjoying normal sleeping patterns is not only critical to the proper functioning of the brain, but also enhances its performance, including concentration, learning capacities and memory formation. As such, normal sleep is indispensable for our mental health, vitality, and intellectual development.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Underlying Issues Associated with Sleep Disorders and Stress specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In equal measure, normal sleep is ingeniously needed to give our bodies an opportunity to repair worn out body cells, a process that makes us wake up feeling refreshed and ready to face the challenges of the day. This is indeed important as it necessitates us to fulfill our work and family responsibilities without feeling fatigued or stressed out to unhealthy limits (Levy et al, 2006). The debate about normal sleep is multifaceted in nature and scope owing to the very fact th at it not only benefits people at an individualized level, but it also benefits the organizations that these people work for. Seminal studies by Shaw and Bernard2 on 500 employees working for different organizations demonstrated that employees who received adequate sleep were more likely to be productive and creative at work than those who slept less than 3 hours a night or those who worked in nightshifts. Productive employees are an asset to the organization. According to Patlak (2005), â€Å"†¦as many as 70 million Americans may be affected by chronic sleep loss or sleep disorders, at an annual cost of $16 billion in health care expenses and $50 billion in lost productivity† (p. 2). This serves as a wake up call for organizations to allow their employees adequate time for sleep since it becomes counterintuitive to the management’s performance objectives if they deny their employees adequate time for sleep and rest. Sleep Disorders and their Negative Effects Slee p disorders are a category of syndromes or medical disorders characterized by disturbances in a person’s sleep patterns, quality of sleep, or in psychological or physiological conditions that must come into play for one to fall asleep (Overeem Reading, 2010). Epidemiological studies on sleep have identified about 70 diverse sleep disorders affecting populations worldwide, bringing with them different ramifications ranging from mild complications to life-threatening episodes (Levy et al, 2006). According to Patlak (2005), an estimated 40 million Americans are affected by sleeping disorders. It is also estimated that more than 50 percent of U.S. citizens aged 65 and older suffers from a sleeping disorder (Levy et al, 2006). It should be noted at this early juncture that lack of sleep for a few days cannot be equated to a sleep disorder. On the contrary, a sleep disorder is a far more serious and persistent condition that causes the sufferer substantial emotional distress and i mpede his or her social or work-related functioning (Sleep Mechanics, 2010). Sleep researchers and psychologists have particularly focused attention to the correlation between sleep disorders and stress. It is a well known fact that psychological stress affects the amount and quality of sleep, making it extremely difficult to sleep normally or attain REM sleep (Patlak, 2005).Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Stoppler Marks (2010) are of the opinion that â€Å"stress is simply a fact of nature — forces from the outside world affecting the individual†¦The individual responds to stress in ways that affect the individual as well as their environment† (para. 1). Such forces may arise from the death of a loved one, medical condition, job-related experiences, family relationships, financial difficulties, and alcohol and substance dependence, among others. Internal determinants determine our bodies’ capacity to react to, and deal with, the forces that induce stress. Of fundamental importance to this research paper is the realization that the amount of sleep that an individual gets is one of the internal factors that influence his or her own capacity to handle stress (Stoppler Marks, 2010). As such, it can be logically concluded that sleeping disorders are positively correlated to enhanced stress levels. Sleep disorders brings with them a myriad of negative effects, e specially on an individual’s social, physical, emotional, and mental wellbeing. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the severity of sleep disorders is further compounded by well-entrenched rules of modern living, which is fast-paced and aggressive, thereby keeping sleep in extreme disregard (Levy et al, 2006). The reality is that sleep disorders can lead to a range of negative outcomes, causing mild to potentially life-threatening ramifications, from weight gain to cardiovascular seizures. Below, some of the most common sleep disorders are discussed. Sleep Apnea Sleep researchers and medical professionals have for years tried to understand the dynamics and causative agents of these condition that is far more widespread than holistically understood. By description, sleep apnea is a breathing disorder typified by short interruptions of breathing occasioned by muscle relaxation during sleep (Levy et al, 2006). At a general level, the conditi on usually arises in association with lack of fitness, fat accumulation, and loss of muscle tone that comes with aging (Overeem Reading, 2010). This potentially life-threatening condition is a serious concern for vital body organs such as the brain and cardiovascular system. The condition, which was first identified in 1965, is much feared for its episodes of pausing of breathing. During an episode, a person’s attempt to inhale air during sleep produces suction that occasions the windpipe to collapse. According to Levy et al (2006), the collapsed windpipe obstructs the air flow for duration of time ranging from ten seconds to a minute, while the person, already in sleep mode, tries to grasp for breathe. As the episode progresses, the blood oxygen level drops forcing the brain to react by waking up the person in a response that is aimed at contracting the upper airway muscles and open the collapsed windpipe (Overeem Reading, 2010). The person may grunt or gasp for a while as he or she attempts to respond before resuming normal breathing. This most excruciating cycle can be repeated numerous times in a single night, compounding the condition even further. The frequent awakenings brought about by sleep apnea are counterintuitive to the health and wellbeing of an individual. A study conducted on subjects with known condition of sleep apnea identified a strong relationship between the condition and personality problems such as irritability, stress, depression, and perceived instability of mental health. The deprivation of oxygen during the seizures may have grave consequences, including brain damage, decline in mental functioning and performance, enhanced risk of suffering from stroke, heart failure, coronary heart disease, injury from accidents, and high blood pressure, among others (Lichstein et al, 2004). In the U.S., sleep apnea and its complications accounts for an estimated $42 million in treatment and hospital bills. Hypersomnia Hypersomnia is a sle ep disorder characterized by recurring and excessive amounts of daytime sleepiness or extended nighttime sleep (Grohol, 2010). Available literature demonstrates that hypersomnia is a rare disorder, occurring in less than 5 percent of the adult population worldwide (Levy et al, 2006). The condition usually affects people between ages 15-30, and progresses gradually over a period of years. Unlike feelings of tiredness or fatigue felt by people largely as a result of lack of adequate sleep at night, people suffering from this condition are compelled to sleep frequently during daytime, often at unsuitable times such as working hours thereby lessening their productivity. Of particular interest is the fact that these daytime naps hardly offer any relief from symptoms of fatigue and disorientation experienced by people with this condition (Overeem Reading, 2010). Hypersomnia is evaluated along a continuum of duration and level of severity. According to Overeem Reading (2010), an individu al must exhibit symptoms related to the condition for at least three weeks to be diagnosed with hypersomnia, not mentioning the fact that the symptoms must have a substantial effect on the person’s life for the person to be categorized as suffering from hypersomnia. Studies conducted over time has identified some unique symptoms or behaviors exhibited by people suffering from the condition. In one particular study, Levy et al (2006) identified excessive daytime sleep (EDS), diminished levels of alertness and energy, anxiety, depression, disorientation, prolonged sleep at night, diminished mental functioning, memory difficulty, and enhanced irritation. Other symptoms include restlessness, slow or retarded speech, antisocial behavior, appetite loss, and hallucinations (Brand et al, 2010). In severe cases, a person suffering from this condition loses his ability to undertake his or her family, social, or occupational responsibilities. Hypersomnia is occasioned by the presence of another sleeping disorder, medications, drug or alcohol dependence, injury or impairment of the central nervous system, and head tumors, among others (Brand et al, 2010). The condition, according to Levy et al (2006), can also be caused by other medical complications such as multiple sclerosis, epileptic seizures, post traumatic stress disorder, and obesity. Of importance to the broad objective of this report is that this condition can be caused by medications used to alleviate stress. As such, a correlation between sleep disorders and the negative outcomes brought about by stress can be drawn. Narcolepsy There is no known cause for this chronic disorder, which is described as excessive and overwhelming sleep attacks especially during daytime even after having adequate sleep at night (Levy et al, 2006). Some sleep researchers defines narcolepsy as a chronic neurological disorder which weaken the capacity of the central nervous system to regulate normal sleep patterns (Overeem Read ing, 2010). As such, a person suffering from this condition is more likely to become sleepy and fatigued at inappropriate times and situations. According to the NINDS (2010a), â€Å"†¦people may involuntarily fall asleep while at work or at school, when having a conversation, playing a game, eating a meal, or, most dangerously, when driving an automobile or operating other types of potentially hazardous machinery† (para. 2). If the urge to sleep becomes irresistible, people with this condition fall asleep for periods ranging from a few seconds to one hour or even for longer periods of time. Other symptoms that characterize narcolepsy include abrupt loss of voluntary muscle tone, hallucinations, and brief periods of total paralysis especially at the beginning or end of every episode (NINDS, 2010a). It is inarguably difficult to diagnose narcolepsy. For a person to be fully diagnosed as suffering from the condition, he or she must have suffered repeated episodes of sleep a ttacks for a period not less than three months (Sleep Mechanics, 2010). The situation is further compounded by the fact that the condition is not ultimately diagnosed in most victims until 10 to 15 years after the onset of the first symptoms (NINDS, 2010a). Scientists have now formed the opinion that narcolepsy is occasioned by disease processes which affects the brain’s capacity to regulate REM sleep. Of particular relevance to this report is the fact that narcoleptic sleep seizures can occur anywhere at any given time, profoundly disabling the victim’s productive capabilities. Restless Legs Syndrome Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological sleep disorder characterized by uncomfortable, stinging sensations in the legs followed by spontaneous urge to move the legs when at rest or sleeping in an attempt to relieve these unpleasant and often painful feelings (NINDS, 2010b). According to Buchfuhrer Kushida (2007), â€Å"†¦the medical term for these sensations is dysesthesia, which is defined as disagreeable or abnormal sensation† (p. 3). These sensations normally occur in the calf sections of the legs but may also be felt elsewhere. The most unique or extraordinary characteristic of RLS is that relaxing or lying down for prolonged periods of time automatically activates the symptoms. The sensations vary in severity from slight uncomfortable feelings to painful episodes. Some individuals have reported experiencing the sensations in the arms too. Accounts of people with RLS reveals a trend whereby the sensations are more pronounced at night than during the day (NINDS, 2010b). In most occasions, the uncomfortable sensations disappear by early morning, allowing the person some time to sleep. Despite extensive research, the causative agents of RLS remain unknown. Although many people don’t take the condition seriously, especially in mild cases, severe cases of RLS can disrupt daytime functions due to the onerous interruption of sleep during the night. More importantly, the syndrome is known to cause exhaustion, stress, and daytime fatigue if left untreated (NINDS, 2010b). Such a scenario bears obvious ramifications on the victims’ work-related responsibilities, personal and family relations, and other activities of daily living. In addition, people with RLS are unable to concentrate, and therefore are unable to accomplish their daily roles (NINDS, 2010b; Buchfuhrer Kushida, 2007). Exploding Head Syndrome According to American Sleep Association (2007), â€Å"†¦exploding head syndrome is a rare and relatively undocumented parasomnia event in which the subject experiences a loud bang similar to a bomb exploding, a gun going off, a clash of cymbals or any other form of loud, indecipherable noise that seems to originate from the head† (para. 1). This condition is not associated with pain or any other physical characteristic. Many people have only reported shortness of breath after experienci ng the syndrome. This noise occurs just before a person enters into deep sleep, and occasionally upon waking up. Attacks can, on their own volition, increase or decrease with time or even disappear altogether. People with this condition often experience fear and distress after an episode, followed by elevated heart rate. Though the condition is not life-threatening, it is highly associated with stress and overbearing fatigue in most people. At this stage, the cause of this syndrome is not yet known (ASA, 2007). Population Affected by Sleeping Disorders Sleep disorders are known to affect people based on their age, lifestyle behaviors, immediate environment, and their mental and health status, among other factors (Levy et al, 2006). It is difficult to draw a fine line between who is at risk of being affected by the sleep disorders because situations keep shifting and our experiences at an individual level keep on changing inline with the trends of modern living. One thing that has re verberated all along the discussion, though, is the fact that sleep disorders and stress are inexorably linked, and that one variable triggers a spontaneous response from the other. This notwithstanding, extensive research carried out on these disorders has explicitly identified the percentage of Americans who may be at risk and, in some occasions, stated the age categories that are most affected. A cohort study conducted in 1993 revealed that one in every 15 people in the U.S were affected by at least one form of sleep apnea, a figure that is equivalent to 18 million Americans (, 2010). It is also estimated that 2-4 percent of Americans lives with the condition but are yet to be diagnosed. People in middle-age are thought to be more at risk of being affected by the condition, with figures demonstrating that as many as 9 percent of American women and a massive 24 percent of American men in middle-age are affected by the condition yet they remain undiagnosed and untre ated (Levy et al, 2006). Available data on hypersomnia demonstrate that the condition affects an estimated 5 percent of the population as they progress through the lifespan (AllPsychOnline, 2004). However, hypersomnia is more widespread in males than in females. The symptoms appear before an individual celebrates his or her 30th birthday, and continue to advance as one ages unless treated. Narcolepsy is a common sleep disorder in populations around the world, but it often goes unrecognized or misdiagnosed. It is therefore hard to account for the total percentage of the population suffering from the condition. But going by NINDS (2010a) estimates, one in every 2,000 people living in the U.S. is affected by the condition. Narcolepsy is neither gender specific nor racial or ethnic specific; it affects people from all walks of life globally. It is feared that a larger segment of the population might be suffering from the condition in silence. According to NINDS (2010a), the disorder â⠂¬Å"†¦prevalence rates vary among populations†¦Compared to the U.S. population, for example, the prevalence rate is substantially lower in Israel (about one per 500,000) and considerably higher in Japan (about one per 600)† (para. 6). Researchers put the figure of Americans suffering from restless legs syndrome (RLS) at 12 million (NINDS, 2010b). However, this is a provisional figure because RLS, as is the case with narcolepsy, is thought to be grossly misdiagnosed and, in some instances, under-diagnosed. Still, some people with the condition fail to go for medical checkup on the belief that theirs is not a serious condition that warrants medical attention. As such, the prevalence levels could be higher than currently estimated. There exist no objective statistics on people affected by exploding head syndrome due to the fact that the disorder is relatively new. What is known at this stage is that individuals over the age of 50 stands more chance of being affected by the syndrome. It is also known that women are at higher risk of being affected by the disorder than men (ASA, 2007). How Sleep Disorders Affect Family Life Evidence adduced in this report has demonstrated that the amount of sleep that an individual gets is one of the internal factors that influence his or her own capacity to cope with stress (Stoppler Marks, 2010). This therefore implies that sleep and the capacity to handle stress are proportionately linked, with the amount of sleep serving as a variable over the capacity to handle stress. More importantly, it has been revealed that sleep disorders affect family life in numerous ways. A good starting point in this discussion would be to reinforce the proven concept that normal sleep is indispensable for our mental health, vitality, and intellectual development (Sleep Mechanics, 2010). In the absence of normal sleep, individuals will be deprived of these critical aspects that enhance their ability to cope with stress. Fatigue and s tress occasioned by sleep disorders makes a person to be unproductive at the family level. As a matter of fact, these undesirable characteristics are not only counterproductive to the family as a unit, but they also impact substantial harm on the victim and his or her own personal and social relationships (Brand et al, 2010). The frequent awakenings occasioned by sleep apnea, according to available literature, are counterintuitive to the health and wellbeing of an individual. According to Lichstein et al (2004), these individuals may be unable to maintain a long term relationship with their partners, not mentioning that the disorders takes a toll on their quality of life, denying them the confidence and vigor that is copiously needed for modern living. Subjectively, some of the sufferers of serious sleep disorders such as sleep apnea think of themselves as abnormal human beings. There exists a strong relationship between sleep disorders such as sleep apnea and personality problems, including irritability, stress, depression, and perceived instability of mental health. Hypersomnia is known to decrease the level of alertness and energy while enhancing depression, disorientation, antisocial behavior, and enhanced irritation, among others (Levy et al, 2006). These undesirable outcomes not only reduces our capacity to effectively cope with the stressors experienced in modern living, but also entraps the sufferers in a vicious cycle of unresponsiveness and low quality life on the family front. Studies have positively correlated these characteristics to increased suicide rates (Vokovic, 2010). It is, therefore, not difficult to see that people suffering from sleep disorders stands a high risk of losing their ability to holistically undertake their family responsibilities. Family breakups and divorces may be witnessed in cases where the sufferer is the sole breadwinner of the family since the disorder will force him or her to forego family responsibilities. Sleep diso rders comes with profound financial obligations in medical costs that are bound to weigh heavily on the family. Statistics demonstrates that an estimated $16 billion is used annually in the U.S. to treat people with sleep disorders (Patlak, 2007). Such costs may have an overbearing effect on the family, affecting its ability to function normally and, in some cases, draining all the resources earmarked for other activities. This only serves to increase stress levels. More importantly, some of the medical complications associated with sleep disorders such as stroke, brain damage, coronary heart disease, and high blood pressure have the capacity to bring permanent ramifications on family life (Eui-Joong Dimsdale, 2007). How Sleep Disorders Affect Work Life It is indeed true that work environments are stressful environments. Our ability to handle and cope with stress therefore becomes of critical value if we are to perform to expectations and remain productive at work. However, this is better said than done when it comes to sleep disorders and work life as many of the negative outcomes associated with sleep disorders only serves to diminish our own abilities to handle stress. Some symptoms such as fatigue, depression, loss of memory, disorientation, and daytime sleepiness (Eui-Joong Dimsdale, 2007) curtails people’s productive and creative nature at work. Chances are that, such symptoms increases cases of absenteeism from work and enhances turnover. According to Lichneistein et al (2004), productive employees are an asset to the organization. Sleep disorders, however, works against the grain to make people with such complications become less productive in their work and therefore a liability to the organization. Patlak (2007) opines that the U.S. alone loses in excess of $50 billion annually in lost productivity due to complications associated with sleep disorders. This is an astronomical figure whose effect on the economy cannot be wished away. People wi th sleep disorders such as hypersomnia or narcolepsy are unable to optimize their work life owing to the fact that they are compelled to sleep frequently during daytime, often at unsuitable times such as work hours (O vereem Reading, 2010). In particular, people with narcolepsy cannot operate hazardous machinery or drive for long hours as they are bound to involuntarily fall asleep on the job and if they do, other expenses may have to be incurred in terms of covering for accidents and hospital bills. Other stress disorders such as RLS and exploding head syndrome are known to cause exhaustion, stress, lack of concentration, and daytime fatigue, profoundly disabling the person’s productive capabilities at work (NINDS, 2010b; Buchfuhrer Kushida, 2007). Conclusion Clearly, the facts have been laid bare that not only does sleep disorders affects our ability to handle stress, but they also have a profound effect on our work and home life. Specifically, the paper has focused atten tion to the interrelations between sleep disorders and stress, and how the resulting multiplicity of negative outcomes affects our family and work life. The paper has gone a step further to discuss some of the most common sleep disorders and the populations that are most at risk of being affected. The astronomical costs in terms of lost productivity, medical complications, family breakups, stress and stress-related complications, lack of creativity, among others calls for action among all stakeholders directed at offering practical yet manageable solutions to the millions of people suffering from these devastating yet treatable complications. Reference List AllPsychOnline. (2004). Psychiatric disorders: Primary hypersomnia. Retrieved from Brand, S., Gerber, M., Puhse, U., Holsboer-Tracchsler, E. (2010). Depression, hypomania, and dysfunctional sleep related cognitions as mediators between stress and insomnia: The best advice is n ot always found in the pillow. International Journal of Stress Management, Vol. 17, Issue 2, p. 114-134. Retrieved from psycARTICLES Database Buchfuhrer, N.J., Kushida, C.A. (2007). Restless legs syndrome: coping with your sleepless nights. Montreal Avenue, Saint Paul, MN: AAN Enterprises Carey, B. (2007, Oct. 24). New studies suggest sleep is vital to learning and memory. The New York Times. Retrieved from (2010). Statistics about sleep apnea. Retrieved from Eui-Joong, K., Dimsdale, J.E. (2007). The effects of psychosocial stress on sleep: A review of Polysomnographic evidence. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, Vol. 5, Issue 4, p. 256-278. Retrieved from Academic Source Premier Database Grohol, J.M. (2010). Hypersomnia, Primary Symptoms. Retrieved from Levy, P., Viot-Blanc, V., Pepin, J.L. (2006). Sle ep disorders and their classifications – An overview. In: W.J. Randerath, B.M. Sanner, V.K. Somers (Eds) Sleep Apnea: Current diagnosis and treatment. Karger Publishers Lichstein, K.L., Durrence, H.H., Riedel, B.W., Taylor, D.J. (2004). Epidemiology of sleep: Age, gender, and ethnicity. Mahwah, New Jersey: Taylor Francis National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2010). Narcolepsy fact sheet. Retrieved from Overeem, S., Reading, P. (2010). Sleep disorders in neurology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Patlak, M. (2005). Your guide to healthy sleep. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from Sleep Mechanics: A guide to guide to getting a good night’s rest. (2010). Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier Database Stoppler, M.C., Marks, J.W. (2010). Stress. Retrieved from /stress/article.htm Vukovic, L. (2010). The power of sleep. Better Nutrition, Vol. 72, Issue 4. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier Database Footnotes 1 National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 2 See: Lichstein et al (2004) This research paper on Underlying Issues Associated with Sleep Disorders and Stress was written and submitted by user D'KenNeraman1 to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

The road to World War II essays

The road to World War II essays In the early days of the First World War, the United States was desperate to stay out of the European war and institute a neutrality policy. However, the two sides fought for U.S. support, often even at a danger to the U.S. The passive stand that America took in involvement in World War I only prolonged the inevitable and came at a price to the U.S. The American public didnt want to be involved in World War I, and Wilson and the democrats knew it, although neutrality was a difficult stand to take. The British, who wanted the Americans to back their side in the war, refused to back U.S. peace drives. The Germans, who wanted the U.S. on their side, against Britain, violated pledges for the waters when it began U-boat attacks. This campaign was extended over many years. The two countries of Germany and England were desperate for the western giants support that would threaten American neutrality. The American people, however, would rather stay of war, and lose their right to the seas. Both sides became increasingly angry with the American position of neutrality. England publicly declared, Anyone who talked of peace was a friend of Germany. This created only hostility towards the British, but continued diplomacy with Germany. The underlying cause of this friendly nature was not to remain neutral. Wilson thought that if the Americans werent going to stand up for their rights to the seas, that this would be the way to reduce the submarine warfare. Wilson promoted peace at every turn, but both sides disliked the idea, in fact the Chancellor of Germany predicted that peace talks would be unsuccessful. Wilson wanted to demand an end to the war, but at this point in the war, it would have ruined the Allies. If that were to ensue, the U.S. would risk war with France or England. Then there was a breaking point. The German government deported 300,000 Belgians, which fired up anger in the ...

Friday, February 21, 2020

A Time of Reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

A Time of Reflection - Essay Example Military tension was culpable between the two world powers, and they even engaged in proxy wars as they tried to outdo each other. The tension created by the Cold war affected day to day lives of Americans. Between 1946 and 1964, it is estimated that some 20 million babies were born in the US. This is the generation that grew up during the tension filled years of the Cold War. It is also the generation that witnessed the Civil Movement. I am a proud member of this generation which is commonly referred to as the Baby Boomers. I grew up during a time when the politics of the United States seemed almost uncertain. There was the ever threatening return-to-war feeling among the general populace. The never-ending tug-of-war between the US and USSR created a fear among citizens. This generated into a phenomenon that came to be known as Duck and Cover as people were afraid that the enemy (that is, the USSR) would drop a nuclear bomb on any part of the country and we had to be ready to duck a nd find cover if and when that happened. This kind of tension was particularly unnerving for the young generation born after the war. I think the older generations were able to deal with the situation since they had experienced the Second World War and were used to such tension. In my understanding at that time, they were too afraid to speak out of the effects that war was having on the common citizens. But I was not. I felt that it was my right to speak out what I thought should be spoken out. If I thought that something was wrong and it needed to be corrected I was bold enough to say it. My outspokenness was a behavior I had picked up from my grandmother since when I was a child. The Civil Rights Movement In 1961 I joined college and like many other young people at the time, I had great expectations for my future. I knew I wanted a good life for myself and I understood that a college education would at least guarantee me a good job with good pay, of course. The 60s were tumultuous years, especially in regards to the Civil rights Movements and the conflicts that came with it. I had heard stories told of how Rosa Parks had defied the high and mighty to secure herself a seat in bus seat that was reserved for whites only. I grew up admiring her courage to face up to people whom she knew could do anything to her if they wanted to. The first time I heard her story, I went home and during dinner asked my mother why people hated parks so much that they did not want her to sit in a set that she had paid for in a bus. My mother tried to explain that people did not hate her, that it was just that people like her could only seat at a designated place in the bus. I was too young to understand the concept of discrimination, but something at the back of my head told me that the treatment Rosa Parks had received was not fare. I think that was the first time I really was able to develop an anti-status quo attitude which I would carry on later into my adulthood. We had an Afr ican housekeeper at home whose son, Jeremy was more or less the same age as me. We were quite good friends and even though we attended different schools (I was in an all-white school while he was in an all black one), we did our school work together. I found him to be brighter than some of the students at my own school. He practically taught me everything I needed to know in all my science subjects. After high school we both went to different colleges but we remained good friends until he